Introduction

"Our nation has had actually enough. We will certainly not take it it anymore, and also that is what this is all about … we fight, we fight prefer hell, and if friend don"t fight like hell, you"re no going to have a nation anymore. … so we space going to, we are going to walk under Pennsylvania Avenue… and also we’re going come the Capitol…” — with those indigenous on Jan. 6, Donald trump card incited a mob that had the hate and antigovernment teams the Proud Boys, the Oath Keepers, and also the three Percenters come storm the U.S. Capitol in an insurrection to keep white supremacy.

You are watching: Hate groups southern poverty law center

Trump refuse to blame to the insurrection, which left five world dead, including a Capitol legislation enforcement officer. He also praised the rioters, calling lock “patriots,” saying “we love you” and “you are really special.“ The episode was storage of his infamous declaration the there were “very fine human being on both sides,” in the results of the violence at the fatal 2017 white superiorist rally in Charlottesville, Virginia.

While every few months it seemed there was a new, brazen minute that would define the trump presidency, it to be this siege the the U.S. Capitol, v pro-Trump rioters parading with the halls that Congress through Confederate flags and also a self-described white conference pilfering native the office of home Speaker Nancy Pelosi, that will exemplify Trump’s racialism demagoguery because that posterity.

Historically, SPLC research shows that as soon as extremists perceive an ext allies in the halls of power, their numbers dip. No so v the trump presidency. For the an initial three year of his presidency, SPLC tape-recorded historically high hate team numbers together bigotry uncovered a comfortable home in the White House, and also white nationalist ideologues influenced policies favor the Muslim ban and separation that immigrant youngsters from families at the border.

Hate groups that traditionally accounting the mainstream, like anti-LGBTQ groups and also anti-immigrant groups, experienced their affect in federal government balloon over the last four years, with serious consequences for human being rights in America and also around the world. Nativist bigotry brought about one the the worst human rights dilemmas in modern-day U.S. History, once the department of Homeland defense separated youngsters from their parents at the southerly border. The administration also effectively suspended the legal asylum process, stranding people who fled violence in their home countries, and also vacated asylum protections for survivors the intimate companion violence. Anti-LGBTQ appointments come the judiciary will most likely threaten trans and also queer Americans’ civil civil liberties for a generation.

Hate teams declined, yet hate did no

In 2020, SPLC tracked 838 energetic hate groups. Despite numbers have actually dropped 11% overall, we room still recording historic highs. In 2015, the numbers jumped indigenous 784 come 892, and they have remained well over 800 because that the term of the trump presidency.

It is crucial to know that the number of hate groups is merely one metric because that measuring the level the hate and also racism in America, and also that the decrease in teams should no be taken as a palliation in bigoted beliefs and actions urged by hate. The SPLC has started conducting polling as second tool to measure up extremist sentiment. Our respectable 2020 polling, because that example, revealed the 29 percent of americans personally recognize someone that believes the white human being are the exceptional race.


*

As one more metric, SPLC keeps track of extremist flyers reported about the country. This year us recorded practically 4,900 flyering incidents. Teams under the white nationalist ideology exploited flyering together a tactic to spread out their hateful worldview virtually twelve times more than all other beliefs combined.

Typically, brand-new hate groups are formed and also membership grow in reaction to transforms in society, especially transforms that difficulty white hegemony. A historical instance of this is the Ku Klux Klan, which to be virtually missing in the 1930s and 1940s after its membership got to record level in the 1920s, and also came roaring back in the 1950s. White nationalist beliefs had not decreased in the 1930s and 1940s alongside team membership, a reality that came to be clear as soon as organized hate tasks erupted after ~ the 1954 can be fried Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education made distinction illegal. In the modern era, we tracked a steady rise of dislike groups throughout the George W. Bush administration, when numbers peaked in the 800s. After ~ Barack Obama came to be the nation’s an initial Black president, the number jumped to an ext than 1,000.


*

The death of the Klan in the critical decade has actually specifically caused an in its entirety reduction in the variety of hate groups that the SPLC tracks. The Ku Klux Klan, previously a far-reaching generator the white superiorist terror, saw its count dwindle come 25 groups in 2020. The variety of Klan groups the SPLC tracked supplied to be repetitively over 150; in recent years lock dropped listed below 100, and also then under 50. A major reason because that this is the the Klan’s surname has end up being extremely toxic — if you are a Klan member and your employer find out, because that instance, you are all but guaranteed to be fired. Unfortunately, those declining numbers carry out not reflect a parallel reduction in assistance for your ideas.

Despite the enormous drop in Klan groups, there are now many alternate hate establishments that make Klan membership obsolete. For example, the Proud Boys, i beg your pardon SPLC list under the general Hate category, vandalized historically black color churches in Washington, D.C. During a December pro-Trump demonstration, and also members the the Proud boys were front and center throughout the U.S. Capitol insurrection.

Many extremist ideologues room not officially members of any kind of organization. Online platforms enable individuals to communicate with hate and antigovernment teams without joining them, and also to kind connections and talk v likeminded people. And, despite the absence of formal affiliation, these individuals still take real-world actions. The U.S. Capitol insurrection exemplifies this. Most of the civilization storming the Capitol structure may no be card-carrying members the a hate or antigovernment group, but they harbor extremist beliefs.

The U.S. Capitol insurrection also showed us how the trump card campaign and also the MAGA movement available individuals a twisted kind of camaraderie the you acquire from gift a member of a hate or antigovernment group, where Trump himself was a radicalizing force. We again see this through the world who were arrested — numerous had previously attended several rallies, and viewed president Trump as their leader.

Two other trends that influenced the counting in 2020 and also will likely affect it in future years: 1) COVID-19 minimized overt hate group activity. There were some groups that us did no relist this year since they ceased their in-person task and walk not appear to do anything online; and 2) Hate teams are significantly being booted from popular social media platforms and moving their interactions into encrypted chatrooms, which provides it harder for the SPLC to monitor them.

The hate team landscape in 2020

As formerly mentioned, The Ku Klux Klan ongoing its collapse, with only 25 active chapters in 2020.

White nationalist team numbers also dipped through 27, a change that does not signal a trend toward much less white conference organizing. Both white nationalist groups and neo-Nazi groups are becoming an ext diffuse and complicated to track and also quantify as they proliferate online and also communicate on encrypted platforms, a tendency this report will check out in greater information in our following installment.

Anti-immigrant, anti-Muslim and anti-LGBTQ hate groups, which space typically much more successful in ~ laundering their ideas into mainstream politics discourse, observed their number remain mostly stable, though their in-person organizing was curtailed because of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Even though anti-immigrant teams were not able to organize as many in-person events as year past, their affect was felt whereby it mattered: in policy and legislation. Over Trump’s four years in office, according to data released by the Migration plan Institute, the Trump management implemented more than 400 policy transforms to curb both legal and also illegal immigration. Exploiting the COVID-19 pandemic come stoke health and economic fears, the Trump management enacted a de facto moratorium top top all immigrant to the U.S. By the finish of 2020.



Influential anti-LGBTQ hate groups came to be further entrenched in the trump White House, and also the Trump administration continued that is years-long pattern of appointing commonwealth judges through ties to anti-LGBTQ groups. The most high-profile of this appointments to be Amy Coney Barrett, who joined the supreme Court last fall and has ties come Alliance Defending Freedom, which SPLC has actually designated an anti-LGBTQ hate group. Though the anti-LGBTQ dislike movement has actually lost an ally in the president, they are most likely to continue to use the reduced courts and also the supreme Court to try and roll back LGBTQ rights.


*

The number of anti-Muslim hate teams dropped through 12, native 84 last year to 72 this year. The largest anti-Muslim hate group in the country, ACT for America, took pleasure in attention indigenous the trumped White House, i m sorry met through ACT head Brigitte Gabriel top top at the very least two recorded occasions in 2020. A previous ACT staffer was likewise hired in ~ the State Department. In spite of that influence, the group suffered from infighting between smaller neighborhood chapters and also the national office in Washington, D.C. Complying with Trump’s election loss, part leaders in the anti-Muslim movement have signaled a shift toward local and also state-level organizing.

Recommendations to combat extremist groups:

Enact the domestic Terrorism avoidance Act, i m sorry would develop offices in ~ the department of Homeland protection (DHS), the department of Justice, and the FBI to monitor, investigate and prosecute cases of residential terrorism – and require these workplaces to consistently report to Congress. Happen overwhelmingly through the residence of Representatives last September, this regulation would also carry out resources to strengthen partnerships v state and local regulation enforcement authorities to challenge far-right extremism and create an interagency task force to discover white supremacist tasks within the U.S. Armed forces and federal legislation enforcement.  Improve commonwealth hate crime data collection, training, and also prevention. Data drives policy. The FBI’s yearly Hate Crime Statistics plot (HCSA) report is the ideal national photo of dislike violence in America, yet data received from the 18,000 federal, state, local, and also tribal regulation enforcement organ is vastly underreported – in part because reporting is no mandatory. In 2019 (the many recent report), 86% that police agencies one of two people affirmatively reported that they had actually zero dislike crimes, or they did not report any type of data to the FBI in ~ all.  As we work-related to build support for mandatory hate crime reporting to the FBI, Congress should enact the Khalid Jabara and also Heather Heyer national Opposition to Hate, Assault, and also Threats come Equality act of 2019 (NO dislike Act), which would authorize inspiration grants come spark improved local and state hate crime training and also data collection initiatives, and state-based hotlines to connect victims with support services. The law is a blunt instrument to resolve violent hate and also extremism – that is much much better to avoid these criminal plot in the very first place. Conference should change funding far from punishment models and toward the avoidance of violent extremism. That should emphasis on program that develop resilient communities and empower adult — consisting of parents, teachers, caregivers, counselors, therapists, faith leaders, and coaches — to help steer young civilization away from dangerous ideas. These programs are much better housed in the department of Education and also Department of Health and Human solutions than DHS or other national security agencies. Reject initiatives to create a new criminal residential terrorism statute – or the production of a listing the designated domestic terrorist organizations. A new federal residential terrorism statute or list would certainly adversely influence civil liberties and also could be used to expand racial profiling or it is in wielded to surveil and also investigate neighborhoods of color and political opponents in the surname of national security. 

Confronting far-right and racist narratives

The just arrive Biden management faces dual challenges: reversing the catastrophic damages to civil legal rights done by Trump and his allies, and also doing the harder work of exposing and dismantling the engines of entrenched, systemic white dominance that have always threatened inclusive democracy in the U.S. Because that example, SPLC’s august 2020 poll found that 65 percent the respondents believe racism exists and is harmful, but 49 percent believe that human being of shade are an ext likely come be bad because the a lack of work ethic.

Findings were likewise disturbing about gaps in wellness outcomes, with only 38 percent of respondents believing the systemic racism play a role, also as COVID-19 ravages neighborhoods of color.

Despite some high-profile support for black color Lives matter protests this summer, the poll proved that 51 percent of Americans thought that the looting which emerged in number of cities was a bigger trouble than police violence versus Black people, and also 51 percent also thought the the protests were no justified because the problem with police violence was isolated to a couple of “bad apples.”

These racialism narratives and beliefs have been reinvigorated many thanks to among the most enduring and also pernicious legacies of the trumped era: the far right’s success building a false alternative reality, bolstered through a never-ending present of baseless conspiracy theories and also disinformation. This fight end the structure of reality has polarized American culture further and also fundamentally ruptured trust in institutions and also information. The technology sector, an opportunistic ally in the propagation that this fraud, abdicated its obligation so long back that it has actually not to be able come meaningfully recover. Only after trump card incited a deadly insurrection and Democrats flipped the Senate did they suspend the President’s accounts and begin come purge various other extremists from your platforms. The echo chambers have actually formed, to trust in the credibility of trusted media outlets has been disastrously diminished, and the polarization the American culture has accelerated.

Some that the robber barons of social media room warming to revisions of section 230 the the interaction Decency plot — law that, in its current form, insulates communication from liability because that the contents users article – long after that is true energy ran the end for your companies. The toxic networks the they nurtured are moving to brand-new platforms, like Parler and Telegram.

The risks of these isolated and tainted wells of information reached your most critical point during the 2020 election, as soon as Trump, his allies and the extremists who support him, denied the severity that COVID-19 and also preemptively asserted the outcomes of the basic election fraudulent. Transparent the year, equipped militias ended up being fixtures in ~ state houses, and also election officials were targeted and threatened in lot of states, including at their exclusive homes. 

Fortunately, predictions of violent attempts to disrupt vote proved mostly unfounded, and the U.S. Commemorated historic voter turnout. But in the weeks after Biden’s victory, Trump and also his compatriots spread out disinformation and also conspiracy theory at a breathtaking rate, and also called on state and also federal chosen officials, and also judges, come overturn the will certainly of voters in 5 states. By so late November, only 20 percent of republic surveyed stated they thought Joe Biden was the true winner the the election, ~ he won the popular vote in a totally free and fair choice by a margin of more than 7 million and also secured the electoral university by 74 votes.

While many — however not all — chosen officials and judges ignored Trump, his followers thrived in in the interim halting the certification of the 2020 election during the joint session of congress on Jan. 6.

The election, and also the violent backlash native the right, have actually all taken place versus the background of a an international pandemic i beg your pardon has declared the resides of an ext than 400,000 american in much less than a year – disproportionately people of color, who have to contend with white supremacist equipment that limit their accessibility to high-quality healthcare and also other an important resources. And skepticism towards safety and security measures and also the vaccine – lot of it fueled by rightwing conspiracy networks – stays high.

Recommendation to address far-right and also racist narratives

Hold previous President Donald Trump and also those who aided incite the deadly attack on the U.S. Capitol accountable. Action by the home of to represent to impeach previous President Trump to be absolutely essential to safeguard the future of ours democracy. Currently the Senate must have the courage and also true patriotism to convict him and also permanently disqualify him from holding windy office. In addition, Congress have to discipline, censure, or expel every one of the 147 Senators and Representatives who sustained the insurrection and also baseless “Stop the Steal” lies through voting versus Electoral college certification of president Biden’s victory. Public figures connected in inciting and giving encouragement to the equipped insurrectionists who stormed the U.S. Capitol on Jan. 6 — destroying property, injuring dozens of officers, and leaving five civilization dead – have to be permanently deplatformed from every social media. In addition, corporations must permanently suspend politics donations come Members of Congress and other elected officials that assisted incite the violent siege and request that any kind of past political donations to their projects be returned. Provide resources for the room of education to develop a curriculum on structural racism and funding for says to implement their very own related initiatives. Americans deserve to only dismantle white prominence if lock understand how racism shame (and proceeds to shape) housing, education, policing, health care and also other policies and practices that impact our everyday lives. Require renaming of army bases named for Confederate leaders, and ban the display of Confederate flags or various other racist signs from all military installations, federal parks, streets, and highways. The 2015 Charleston church massacre sparked a nationwide initiative to remove Confederate icons from public places, yet hundreds continue to be – a sign that we have failed to completely acknowledge the injustices of slavery or affirm our commitment to a completely inclusive, pluralistic democracy. In addition, conference should create a federal provide program to aid municipalities remove symbols the the Confederacy.

​American attitudes about racism

Just weeks before the COVID-19 pandemic took hold of the united States, a various tragedy gripped Brunswick, Georgia once Ahmaud Arbery was sought by 3 white guys (one a previous police officer) when he was jogging and shot to death. In spite of the occurrence being recorded on video, law enforcement make no arrests in link with the assault for an ext than 70 days.

Arbery’s death was amongst the first extrajudicial killings that Black people in 2020 come garner nationwide media attention. Each one is a reminder that the census that hate groups undertaken by the SPLC’s knowledge Project is just one metric for knowledge the toll the white supremacy takes top top Black and also Indigenous Americans, together with other americans of color.


*

Despite a historic, nationwide outcry over these murders, SPLC’s poll verified a restricted understanding of together structural racism. Big majorities that the population surveyed acknowledged the threats posed by organized antigovernment and white power groups, however failed to connect their existence and influence come the greater society of white supremacy. For example, the stare of the strange “bad apple” in police department persists, also as reports of violence and death in ~ the hand of legislation enforcement proliferate throughout the country.

Throughout his presidency, Trump and his allies denied and minimized the fact of bigotry in this country, and also legitimized white dominance through plans like the Muslim ban and also the kid separation, v personnel favor Stephen Miller, Julia Hahn, Jason Richwine and also Darren Beattie, and also through behavior like defending Confederate monuments and also the extremists who marched in Charlottesville. His administration mocked and resisted public education around our country’s racist legacy, attack the New York Times’s The 1619 project in particular. In so late September, chairman Trump issued an executive order banning some forms of diversity maintain for commonwealth employees and also contractors.

Recommendations to readjust attitudes about racism

Establish a national truth, racial healing and change commission to study the history of white supremacy and structural racism in the joined States. This long-overdue truth and reconciliation the supervisory board would help the United states reckon with the injustices our nation has cursed and help spark a motion to get rid of racial discrimination. Prohibit racial, ethnic and spiritual profiling in federal, state and local legislation enforcement. Black, Latinx, Muslim and also Indigenous human being are subject to discriminatory policing, including increased surveillance, more harsh criminal sentences and also disproportionately high rates of being eliminated by police.

Antigovernment uprising

On Aug. 25, a 17-year-old called Kyle Rittenhouse traveled the 20 miles in between his hometown that Antioch, Illinois and Kenosha, Wisconsin. He to be answering an open call, sent over social media, for equipped militia to “defend” Kenosha native the mainly peaceful protests that had sprung up in the city ~ a Kenosha police officer chased Jacob Blake right into his car and also shot him four times in the back, paralyzing him. Rittenhouse, despite being a minor, had procured a semiautomatic rifle and also brought it with him come the protest. Before the night to be over, he accused shot three men, death two. He has been charged with multiple counts that homicide, and his attorneys are arguing he plot in self-defense. World on the right, native the mainstream to the fringe, no only safeguarded his actions, however celebrated them. 


The shootings in Kenosha to be the apex the a year the feverish paramilitary vigilantism, which started in January 2020 as soon as militias verified up in Richmond, Virginia to oppose gun actions promised through a newly Democratic-controlled state legislature. Soon, they discovered a brand-new mobilizing cause: as COVID-19 started to spread throughout the country, antigovernment groups came the end in pressure to protest mask mandates and other safety actions to slow the spread of the disease. As mass protests for racial righteousness mobilized around the country, paramilitaries styled themselves as ad hoc deputies of regulation enforcement, “patrolling” the streets in opposition come the mostly peaceful protests.


A likewise laudatory reaction indigenous the appropriate greeted Mark and Patricia McCloskey, that brandished guns at a passing team of black Lives issue protesters in St. Louis. They were rewarded through a speaking slot in ~ the Republican nationwide Convention.

In your defense that Rittenhouse and also other equipped militia action, the right has actually signaled that antigovernment authorized is an acceptable type of right-wing politics expression, a stance that did not also waver when members of a Michigan militia to be arrested and charged through plotting come kidnap your governor, Gretchen Witmer.

The thwarted plot come after a wire of violence and also arrests attributed to the Boogaloo movement, a predominantly white and also heavily armed online subculture that started as a racialism meme. The subculture is one illustration that the porous boundaries in between the antigovernment movement and also the larger hate ecosystem, and also how anonymous posting forums favor 4Chan proceed to influence both. That adherents support for a 2nd civil war and also have been connected repeatedly in plot of violence, consisting of murder.

The antigovernment motion will be explored in detail in a succeeding installment that this report, together with SPLC’s 2020 perform of antigovernment groups.

Recommendations for squelching the antigovernment uprising

End funding for police militarization and also the transfer of excess army property to law enforcement agencies. Police militarization disproportionately exposes neighborhoods of color to police violence and also it inflames the paranoia the the excessive right, which supplies state-sponsored violence as evidence of federal government tyranny and impending polite war. End funding for DHS against Violent Extremism/Targeted Violence and also Terrorism avoidance programs that profile and also target immigrants, Muslims and also Black american and an outcome in illegal spying and also surveillance. They are not only ineffective, however harmful. Codify live independence authority and also autonomy protections for whistleblowers and also inspectors basic at federal agencies – consisting of federal legislation enforcement agencies. President Trump’s unprecedented purge of numerous federal company inspectors basic revealed the limits of current law to protect these important government watchdogs, who are qualified of injecting lot needed accountability right into the federal government. Whistleblower protection can help address the “Blue wall surface of Silence” and encourage report of racist law enforcement officials.

​The path forward

As us move into 2021, and also beyond the trump presidency, we must discover ways to counter the reactionary, authoritarian populism that is mobilizing ~ above the heels that Trump’s loss. Hate teams that lose salience or publicly attention will not go away. Instead, they will uncover shelter elsewhere amongst the far right, an especially in the militant sheet of campaigns like “Re-Open” and “Stop the Steal.”

An effective opposition to this antidemocratic movement needs to dismantle the symptom of white supremacy society that justification it and also give that fuel. The SPLC has arisen four impact Statements that assist define and also quantify our mission, and each has a role to play in combating the too much right.

First, dismantling white nationalism and also protecting democracy. With durable anti-racist education, we have the right to reduce the population of Americans the harbor sympathy for a white nationalist worldview.

Second, protecting poll rights and also civic engagement. By dismantling voter suppression laws, we have the right to keep the power in the hands of the American people and safe native undue affect by the little antidemocratic minority.

Third, decriminalizing and also decarcerating Black and also Brown people. Fixed incarceration and overcriminalization saps resources and also opportunities from communities of color and contributes to a culture that dehumanizes Black and Brown people and also fuels the core ideology of white nationalism.

Finally, eradicating poverty. Yet again, systemic racism creates obstacles to advancement, meaning Black and Brown human being are overrepresented in populaces experiencing poverty. The challenges poverty gift overlap v the other obstacles we confront in the fight versus white supremacy.

Lydia Bates, Eddie Bejarano, Freddy Cruz, Hannah Gais, Tracey Gale, Rachel Goldwasser, Raven Hodges, Caleb Kieffer, and also other members the IP study staff added to this report.

See more: Has Anyone Died On The Amazing Race Vietnam, How Did Jim Raman Die

 Policy referrals were added to this report through SPLC an elderly Policy torture Michael Lieberman and other SPLC plan staff.