July 9, 2021Paul Dorian
Temperature recordings at the Greenland Ranch weather station in fatality Valley, California during the intense warmth wave that July 1913. This excerpt about the record-breaking heat wave comes from an write-up posted during January 1922 in the meteorological journal Monthly Weather Review i m sorry is tho in publishing today. NOAA source:
Death Valley, California will have high temperatures close to the 125 degree mark end the next few days, but this is still short of the all-time record there that occurred way back in 1913. On July 10th, 1913, the weather observer in ~ Greenland Ranch in death Valley recorded a high temperature of 134°F. One hundred and eight years later, this is quiet the highest possible air temperature ever before reliably tape-recorded on Earth. In addition to this all-time and worldwide high temperature record, the year the 1913 produced plenty of other too much weather events.
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Why so warm in fatality Valley?
Death Valley national Park is the biggest national park in the continental US and also is situated in the Mojave Desert of southeast California. It consists of a vast range of elevations and also landscapes and also is well-known for being a floor of extremes consisting of its climate. In fact, the depth and shape of fatality Valley contribute greatly to its excessive heat. Specifics the extreme heat is due to a mix of several determinants including the elevation below sea level (282 feet), the lack of vegetation; especially, on the lowest part of the sink floor which permits sunlight to straight heat the desert surface, the narrow width the the valley and also its north-south orientation i m sorry traps wait in the valley allowing it to be recycled ago down to the sink floor, radiation of warm from the rocky surface of the mountains that surround the valley, and the low humidity as dry wait heats at a much much faster rate than moist air and also greatly inhibits the formation of clouds. Temperatures in death Valley normally reach or exceed 100°F native mid-May until early on October.
Extreme weather that 1913
The intense warmth of July 1913 in California was no the only excessive heat measured the year in the US. There to be a widespread warmth wave in June that that same year across the eastern fifty percent of the country which resulted in plenty of readings above 100°F. In fact, NOAA’s main temperature documents still cite June 16, 1913 together the hottest ever before on a nationwide basis for that specific date. In addition to the extreme heat seen throughout the united state that year, there space newspaper short articles from that exact same time period suggesting high warm may have actually taken location in others component of the world. One such write-up (excerpt presented above) composed on march 30, 1913 reported the “recent observations seem to show that glaciers are progressively disappearing almost everywhere the world”.
In addition to the too much heat, 1913 featured other severe and deadly weather events throughout the US. During March, one of the worst floods ever in this country took ar after significant rivers in the main and eastern us flooded indigenous runoff and also several work of hefty rain. This flood now referred to as the “Great flood of 1913” remains one of the worst natural catastrophes ever for Ohio with locations like Dayton in the southwestern component of the state submerged underwater for several days. Later that same an extremely eventful year, among the worst storms ever before for the great Lakes region took place and also it is currently referred to in many ways including “White Hurricane”, “Freshwater Fury” or just “The an excellent Lakes Storm that 1913”. This powerful storm to be a blizzard through hurricane-force winds that devastated theGreat Lakes Basinand the province ofOntarioinCanadafrom November 7 through November 10, 1913.
During July 1913, death Valley, California endured an intense stretch of warm weather from the fifth through the 14th as soon as the high temperature got to 125°F or higher each and also every day. In fact, this 10-day stretch tho ranks together the sexty stretch ever before recorded in fatality Valley. The hottest job in this time duration occurred from the nine through the 13th once the high temperature got to at least 129°F through the hottest being on July 10th once the record-breaking 134°F to be measured.
Weather station integrity at Greenland Ranch
In regards to the reliability of the Greenland Ranch weather station at fatality Valley, California, there should be little question in that regard. The us Weather bureau (now known as the US nationwide Weather Service) actually developed this weather terminal in 1911 in teamwork with the agency that operated the ranch. In their own words, the us Weather bureau “carefully tested maximum and also minimum thermometers” and also stated the “the instrument sanctuary at this station is the very same as those offered at several thousand various other weather stations maintained by the Weather office throughout the united States”. The united state Weather office summarized by stating “the excessive maximum temperature that 134°F videotaped on July 10, 1913, is the greatest natural-air temperature ever recorded ~ above the earth’s surface ar by method of a tested traditional thermometer exposed in a standard ventilated tool shelter”.
Interesting twist come the record
In this certain case, us are managing what appears to be a reliable high temperature document that was collection long back and tho stands now as the all-time document on the planet, but there is an amazing twist to the record. The fatality Valley, California document of 134°F was much less than a decade old when it fell to a new record. Top top September 13, 1922, a temperature the 136°F was recorded at El Azizia, Libya and also this was certainly cited by the world Meteorological company (WMO) because that nine decades as the world’s highest temperature ever before recorded. However, ~ above September 12th, 2012, the WMO officially re-certified the 134 level reading of July 10th, 1913 at death Valley, California together the all-time highest possible air temperature ever recorded on earth after evidence surfaced suggesting the Libya record of 136°F was based on a reading from a bad thermometer the was placed in the wrong ar (near asphalt) and also read by one untrained observer.
Cooperative observer form for July 1913 from Greenland Ranch in death Valley, California. The high of 134°F videotaped on July 10 is circled in red.>
In fact, over there are numerous risks as soon as comparing high temperature records collection in today"s human being to those collection decades ago. Numerous of today"s “official” reporting weather stations have actually had far-ranging growth in advance (housing, roads, etc.) in their instant surrounding region with products like asphalt and concrete the are recognized to have an all at once warming result on temperatures. This “urban warm island (UHI)” result has come to be an significantly important problem to resolve in the analysis of long-term temperature trends and the review of contemporary day high temperature records. In the Southwest US, for example, whereby populations have doubled or tripled in the past 50 years close to official report weather stations (e.g., ras Vegas, NV, Phoenix, AZ), the UHI impact has end up being important enough that record high temperature records of today are questioned in some locations. Even the inhospitable an ar of death Valley has had some breakthrough in the area neighboring today"s weather terminal at heater Creek through asphalt roads now leading to a nearby visitor’s facility - all of which makes this long-surviving record of 134°F set in 1913 in ~ Greenland Ranch really impressive indeed.
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One last note of interest, the coldest temperature ever before recorded at fatality Valley arisen in, yes, the exact same year the 1913. On January 8th, 1913, the temperature dropped to 15°F at heating system Creek which is the lowest ever recorded in fatality Valley.
Meteorologist Paul DorianPeratonbuzzpatterson.com
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