107th (2001–2003), 108th (2003–2005), 109th (2005–2007), 110th (2007–2009), 111th (2009–2011)

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In 2000, while serving as very first Lady of the joined States,Hillary Rodham Clinton won choice to the U.S. Senatefrom new York. Top top Capitol Hill she functioned to rebuildand secure new York City in the wake up of the September11, 2001, terror attacks, and pushed for actions to aidthe troops fighting the wars in Iraq and also Afghanistan. Afterserving as Secretary of State in the cabinet of PresidentBarack Obama, she ended up being the very first woman in to be nominated because that President top top a major partyticket. ~ breaking obstacles at every turn throughout herpolitical job Clinton reflected on her legacy in March2020. “Well, I recognize I to be a good public servant,” she said.“I hope the I’ve made it a small bit simpler for much more womento go into the public sphere.”1

Hillary Rodham Clinton to be born Hillary DianeRodham ~ above October 26, 1947, in Chicago, Illinois, theoldest of three children, come Hugh Ellsworth Rodham andDorothy Howell Rodham. Clinton prospered up in the Chicagosuburb that Park Ridge and graduated native WellesleyCollege in Massachusetts, where she became a campusleader and also was favored by her classmates together the an initial studentcommencement speaker.2 after ~ earning a bachelor’s degreein political science, Clinton completed a law level atYale law School in 1973. Influenced by the work-related of MarianWright Edelman, a Yale alumna and children’s rightsactivist who founded the children’s Defense money (CDF),Clinton operated for the CDF after ~ graduation. In 1974 shejoined the staff of the Judiciary Committee specialcounsel leading the impeachment inquiry into PresidentRichard M. Nixon sparked by the Watergate Scandal. AfterNixon resigned and the residence closed that investigation,Rodham welcomed a teaching position at the university ofArkansas institution of Law and also in 1975 married wilhelm J.(Bill) Clinton, whom she had met in ~ Yale. They have actually adaughter, Chelsea.3

In 1977 president Jimmy Carter appointed Clinton tothe plank of Legal services Corporation—an organizationthat dispersed federal money come legal aid bureaus nationally.She established the Arkansas supporters for kids andFamilies and also in 1978 was called to the children’s DefenseFund board, i m sorry she later on chaired indigenous 1986 come 1989.In 1978 her husband invoice won choice as governor ofArkansas, and also she take it on obligations as the state’sfirst lady during their merged 10 year in the governor’smansion.4 In 1992 she campaigned commonly for she husbandduring his run for the White; invoice Clinton was elected President that November. Because that eight years, Clintonserved as an active an initial Lady, functioning on wellness carereform, children’s issues, and women’s rights. PresidentClinton named her head of his task pressure on wellness carepolicy, but Congress never adopted her arrangement to overhaulthe wellness industry. The reforms were exit inSeptember 1994.5

In 1999, when new York city council Daniel PatrickMoynihan announced his retirement, Clinton joined therace to success him while keeping the duty of FirstLady. In July 1999, she collection up one exploratory committeeand pledged come “spend part time—a the majority of time—in NewYork listening to people.”6 despite never having lived inNew York, Clinton developed residency, got strongparty support, and quickly became the frontrunner in theDemocratic main largely as result of her efforts campaigningin upstate brand-new York. In she official campaign launchon February 7, 2000, Clinton took the stage at the StateUniversity of new York through the chairman standing silentlybehind her. Addressing details criticisms head-on she said,“Now ns know, some world are asking why ns doing this,here and also now. And also that’s a same question. This is my answer,and why i hope you’ll put me to work for you: I may be newto the neighborhood, yet I’m not brand-new to your concerns.”7

Clinton brushed up the autonomous primary, win 82percent that the vote versus Mark McMahon, one orthopedicsurgeon who had actually only gone into the race to stop Clintonfrom running unopposed.8 In the construct up come the generalelection against Republican Representative Enrico A. (Rick)Lazio, Clinton pledged to assist revitalize the economyupstate and continue her commitment to education and learning andhealth care reform. She donate a “patients’ bill of rights”and increased Medicare coverage because that prescription drugs.Clinton hammered Lazio top top the subject of health care inthe campaign’s last stretch, criticizing the Congressmanfor missing a poll on one amendment to an appropriationsbill that would certainly have compelled HMO plans come coverMedicare patients because that at the very least three years, instead of one.On November 7, 2000, she dominated with 56 percent ofthe vote.9 Clinton’s choice made her the very first woman torepresent new York in the United says Senate; she was alsothe very first First Lady to victory election to commonwealth office.

In the Senate, Clinton obtained three committeeassignments in her first term: Budget; setting andPublic Works; and also Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions(HELP). In the 108th conference (2003–2005), she stepped down from the spending plan Committee when she became thefirst new Yorker in Senate to offer on the ArmedServices Committee. Additionally, in the 109th Congress(2005–2007), she was assigned to the Senate SpecialCommittee on Aging.10

Much the Clinton’s at an early stage work in the Senate concentrated onpromoting economic advancement in upstate new York—including the growth of high-speed web accessand the creation of taxes incentives because that environmentally friendly structure projects. She also promoted programsto renovate and modernize schools. ~ the September11, 2001, terrorist assaults on the people Trade center inNew York City, she operated to help the an ar recover.Because the the attacks, new York shed one-third of every itsoffice room in lower Manhattan; crucial rail and also subway linesclosed, displacing much more than a fifty percent million commuters;and 10s of thousands of work were lost. Clinton workedwith she colleagues to ensure brand-new York received federalfunds to begin rebuilding. She combated to incorporate $50million for brand-new York area nonprofits and $570 millionin facilities security in 2004. Eventually, more than$21.4 billion was appropriated to rebuild and also secure thecity and affected areas. Clinton likewise won an extension ofunemployment insurance to aid displaced workers.11

In October 2002, following President George W. Bush’swarning that Saddam Hussein possessed tools of massdestruction, Clinton joined 28 other democratic Senatorsand nearly all republic in authorizing use of military forcein Iraq. Despite criticism from peace advocates and also otherDemocrats, Clinton defended her decision and later vote foran $87 billion supplemental appropriation because that the war. “Thefact is we’re in Iraq and also we’re in Afghanistan, and we haveno an option but to be successful,” she defined in December2003. As the battle dragged on, however, Clinton join achorus of democrats criticizing the shrub administration’sstrategy. In respectable 2006, she dubbed for the resignation ofSecretary the Defense Donald Henry Rumsfeld.12

During she time in the Senate, Clinton to be either inthe minority party or part of a razor-thin majority. Whilea couple of of her standalone bills became law, Clinton focusedon policy work-related in committee and on establishing bipartisanrelationships.13 Virginia Senator man William Warner, theRepublican chair that the armed Services Committee, praisedClinton’s efforts. “She’s an extremely industrious,” that said. “Shedoes her homework an extremely carefully. She’s an extremely respectful ofhow the committee walk its business.” Clinton leveraged her expertise of the committee procedure to seek moreprotective body armor because that troops in the middle East and toadvocate for an end to the “Don’t Ask, nothing Tell” policybanning openly happy servicemembers.14

In fall 2006, Clinton to be re-elected to a 2nd termin the Senate, winning 64 percent that the poll againstRepublican candidate john Spencer. In 2007 she declaredher candidacy for the 2008 democratic presidentialnomination. In a historic primary season, Clinton emergedas very early frontrunner, but criticisms that her poll for theIraq battle weighed on her campaign and also she eventuallylost the nomination come Senator Barack Obama the Illinois.Following his election together President, Obama nominatedClinton as Secretary of State. In late January 2009, after theSenate confirmed her nomination, Clinton resigned native Senate to begin her duties together Secretary the State.15

Clinton served as Secretary that State in the Obamaadministration native 2009 to 2013. ~ above April 12, 2015, sheannounced she candidacy because that the democratic nominationfor president in 2016.

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Clinton winner the autonomous primaryand, when she welcomed the nomination on July 28, 2016,became the very first woman come head the presidential ticket that amajor party. Though she ultimately won nearly three millionmore votes in the well-known vote, Clinton shed the 2016presidential election to the Republican nominee, Donald J.Trump, who recorded the Electoral College.16