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Rosa Parks rode in ~ the front of a Montgomery, Alabama, bus top top the day the can be fried Court"s ban on distinction of the city"s buses took effect. A year earlier, she had been arrested for refusing to provide up she seat ~ above a bus.

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On a cold December night in 1955, Rosa Parks quietly incited a change — by just sitting down.

She was worn down after security the day at job-related as a department keep seamstress. She stepped onto the bus for the journey home and sat in the fifth row — the first row of the "Colored Section."

In Montgomery, Alabama, when a bus ended up being full, the seats nearer the front were given to white passengers.

Montgomery bus driver James Blake bespeak Parks and three various other African americans seated surrounding to relocate ("Move y"all, I want those two seats,") come the earlier of the bus.

Three riders complied; Parks go not.

The following excerpt that what happened next is indigenous Douglas Brinkley"s 2000 Rosa Park"s biography.

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"Are girlfriend going to stand up?" the driver demanded. Rosa Parks looked right at him and said: "No." Flustered, and also not rather sure what come do, Blake retorted, "Well, I"m going to have you arrested." and Parks, still sitting alongside the window, responded softly, "You might do that."

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After Parks refused to move, she was arrested and also fined $10. The chain of occasions triggered by she arrest changed the joined States.

King, Abernathy, Boycott, and the SCLC


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Martin Luther King Jr. Was the an initial president of the Mongomery innovation Association, which arranged the Montgomery bus boycott that 1955. This began a chain reaction of comparable boycotts throughout the South. In 1956, the can be fried Court vote to finish segregated busing.

In 1955, a little-known minister called Martin Luther King Jr. Led the Dexter path Baptist Church in Montgomery.


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Henry David Thoreau"s work-related "Civil Disobedience" listed inspiration for numerous leaders the the Civil legal rights Movement.

King learned the writings and practices that Henry David Thoreau and Mohandas Gandhi. Your teaching supported civil disobedience and also nonviolent resistance to society injustice.

A staunch devotee the nonviolence, King and also his colleague Ralph Abernathy were a part of a ar organization, the MONTGOMERY improvement ASSOCIATION (MIA), which organized a boycott of Montgomery"s buses.

The needs they made were simple: black color passengers need to be treated v courtesy. Seating need to be allotted ~ above a first-come-first-serve basis, through white passengers sit from former to ago and black color passengers sit from earlier to front. And African American motorists should drive routes that generally serviced african Americans. Top top Monday, December 5, 1955 the boycott went into effect.


Don"t journey the Bus


In 1955, the Women"s politics Council approve a leaflet calling because that a boycott of Montgomery buses.

Don"t drive the bus come work, come town, to school, or any kind of place Monday, December 5.

Another negro Woman has actually been arrested and also put in jail due to the fact that she refuse to offer up she bus seat.

Don"t drive the buses to work to town, come school, or any type of where on Monday. If friend work, take a cab, or re-publishing a ride, or walk.

Come to a mass meeting, Monday at 7:00 P.M. In ~ the Holt Street Baptist Church for more instruction.


Montgomery officials stopped at nothing in attempting to sabotage the boycott. King and Abernathy were arrested. Violence started during the activity and continued after the conclusion. 4 churches — and also the homes of King and also Abernathy — were bombed. However the boycott continued.


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Together through Martin Luther King Jr., Ralph Abernathy (shown here) arranged the southerly Christian management Conference and also helped command the nonviolent struggle to overturn Jim crow laws.

The MIA had hoped for a 50 percent assistance rate amongst African Americans. To their surprise and also delight, 99 percent that the city"s african Americans refuse to journey the buses. Civilization walked to job-related or rode your bikes, and also carpools were developed to assist the elderly. The bus firm suffered thousands of dollars in shed revenue.

Finally, top top November 23, 1956, the can be fried Court ruled in favor of the MIA. Segregated busing was claimed unconstitutional. City public official reluctantly agreed to comply with the Court Ruling. The black neighborhood of Montgomery had held firm in their resolve.

The Montgomery bus boycott triggered a firestorm in the South. Across the region, blacks stood up to "moving come the earlier of the bus." similar actions flared increase in other cities. The boycott put Martin Luther King Jr. In the national spotlight. He became the identified leader of the nascent Civil legal rights Movement.

With Ralph Abernathy, King created the southerly Christian management Conference (SCLC).

This company was committed to fighting Jim crow segregation. Afri Americans boldly declared to the rest of the nation that their activity would be peaceful, organized, and also determined.

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To contemporary eyes, acquiring a chair on a bus might not seem favor a good feat. Yet in 1955, sit down marked the first step in a revolution.