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Born:Israel...(Show more)Died:c.64RomeItaly...(Show more)Title / Office:pope (-64)...(Show more)Notable Works:letters the Peter...(Show more)Role In:Council the Jerusalem...(Show more)

In Christian tradition, St. Peter was among the 12 apostles of Jesus. Roman Catholic legacy holds the Jesus developed St. Peter together the very first pope (Matthew 16:18). Jesus also gave him “the secrets of the kingdom that heaven” (Matthew 16:19), which is why that is often portrayed at the gates of sky in art and also popular culture. After ~ Jesus’ death, he offered as the head the the Apostles and was the an initial to do a wonder after Pentecost (Acts 3:1–11). The 2 Letters that Peter in the scriptures are attributed come his authorship, though some scholars conflict this.


How did St. Peter die?

St. Peter is thought to have died as a martyr because that his faith. Return his death is not described in Scripture, countless writers of the moment (or shortly thereafter) explained his death as having developed in Rome during the reign of the emperor Nero in 64 CE. Follow to tradition, St. Peter was crucified upside down due to the fact that he feel unworthy to dice in the exact same manner as Jesus Christ.


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What is St. Peter the patron saint of?

As the traditional very first pope of the roman inn Catholic Church, St. Peter has actually a lengthy list of places, occupations, and also causes under his patronage. That is the patron saint of popes and also of Rome and also of countless cities that bear his name, such together St. Petersburg and Saint-Pierre. Together a previous fisherman, that is the patron saint of netmakers, shipbuilders, and also fishermen, and, due to the fact that he holds the “keys of heaven,” he is additionally the patron saint the locksmiths. Possibly since he is said to have walked on water v Jesus, the is the patron saint of cobblers and of those v foot problems.


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St. Peter the Apostle, initial name Simeon or Simon, (died 64 ce, Rome ), disciple the Jesus Christ, well-known in the early Christian church together the leader of the 12 disciples and also by the roman inn Catholic Church together the very first of the unbroken sequence of popes. Peter, a Jewish fisherman, was referred to as to be a disciple that Jesus in ~ the start of Jesus’ ministry. He got from Jesus the name Cephas (from Aramaic Kepa <“Rock”>; hence Peter, from Petros, a Greek translate in of Kepa).

The man and also his position among the disciples

The resources of information concerning the life of Peter are minimal to the brand-new Testament: the 4 Gospels, Acts, the letter of Paul, and the 2 letters the bear the name of Peter. He more than likely was known originally by the Hebrew name Simeon or the Greek form of that name, Simon. The former shows up only double in the new Testament, the latter 49 times. At solemn moments (Gospel follow to john 21:15), that was dubbed “Simon, kid of John.” The Gospel according to man prefers Simon (17 times) or the compound, rarely uncovered elsewhere, the Simon Peter. Though Paul has actually a unique preference (8 times out of 10) for the Greek transliteration Kēphas (Latinized as Cephas) that the Aramaic name or title Kepa, an interpretation “Rock,” the Gospels and Acts usage the Greek translate into Petros roughly 150 times. Native the Synoptic Gospels (Gospel according to Matthew 8:14) and also Paul (First Letter the Paul to the Corinthians 9:5), there is indirect evidence that Peter was the boy of John and also was married. His family members originally come from Bethsaida in Galilee (John 1:44), but during the duration of Jesus’ to adjust Peter stayed in Capernaum, in ~ the northwest finish of the Sea the Galilee, where he and his brothers St. Andrew to be in cooperation as anglers with St. James and St. John, the boy of Zebedee (Gospel according to Luke 5:10).

Much can be learned around Peter from the new Testament—either explicitly from the statements do by and around Peter or indirect from his actions and also reactions as revealed in a number of episodes in i beg your pardon he numbers prominently. He was at times vacillating and unsure, together in his relations with the church that Antioch once he at an initial ate through the Gentiles and later refuse to do so (Letter that Paul to the Galatians 2:11–14). That could also be resolute (Acts the the apostle 4:10; 5:1–10). Periodically he is depicted as rash and also hasty (Luke 22:33, etc.) or irritable and capable of good anger (John 18:10). Frequently he is pictured together gentle yet firm and, as in his job of love to Jesus, qualified of good loyalty and love (John 21:15–17).

The new Testament reports that Peter to be unlearned in the sense that he was untrained in the Mosaic law (Acts 4:13), and also it is cynical that he knew Greek. He apparently learned slowly and erred time and time again, yet later, when entrusted through responsibility, that demonstrated that he was mature and also capable.


The Gospels agree the Peter was referred to as to be a disciple the Jesus at the start of his ministry, yet when and also where the event took location is recorded differently in the numerous Gospels. Luke (5:1–11) scarcely mentions James and also John and omits Andrew when emphasizing the call of Peter. Matthew (4:18–22) and Mark (Gospel according to mark 1:16–20) note the speak to of the 4 men and—with Luke—agree that the occasion took place at the Sea the Galilee. The Gospel follow to John places the call in Judaea (1:28) and states the Andrew—who had been a monitor of St. John the Baptist (1:35) and had heard John show that Jesus was the Lamb the God—left John and introduced Peter to “the Messiah,” who at that time offered him the surname (or title) Cephas (i.e., Peter, or Rock).

The Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke) are more than likely correct in recording the the speak to to Peter was expanded in Galilee as soon as Jesus an initial began his work-related in that area. The Gospel according to man is here, as elsewhere, perhaps much more theologically 보다 historically motivated; the writer of man wishes to stress and anxiety that Peter known Jesus’ messiahship indigenous the beginning and that Jesus had seen Simon as the “rock” native their very first meeting.

The Synoptic Gospels largely agree in the lot of emphasis each gives to the leadership of Peter among the Twelve Apostles, but there are differences also. Because that example, in one situation Matthew and also Luke keep in mind that Peter to be the speak in questioning Jesus around a parable, yet Mark attributes these words to the team of disciples (Matthew 15:15; Luke 8:45; and also Mark 7:17). V differing levels of emphasis, the Synoptic Gospels agree that Peter served as spokesman, the outstanding member of the group, and also enjoyed a certain precedence end the other disciples. At any time the disciples are listed, Peter is invariably mentioned an initial (Matthew 10:2–4; note 3:16–19; Luke 6:14–16; plot 1:13; compare just Galatians 2:9). Although the is not particular whether or not this priority is primarily as result of reading ago into the Gospel narrative Peter’s importance in the apostolic church, his forceful personality was surely a factor.

Those not belonging come the prompt followers that Jesus also recognized the authority of Peter, such as when the collectors the the temple taxes approached the for details (Matthew 17:24). Again, through characteristic quickness he sought a clarification from Jesus on behalf of the disciples concerning the meaning of a parable (Matthew 15:15) or of a saying (Matthew 18:21). As both an individual and also a representative the the Twelve Apostles, he made a plea for an individual preference in the kingdom of heaven together a reward because that faithful company (Matthew 19:27, 28).

On numerous occasions, Peter alone is pointed out by name and also others are shown as simply accompanying the (Mark 1:36; Luke 8:45). Also when the three disciples closest to Jesus (the “pillars”—Peter, James, and also John) number in a details incident, the is generally Peter alone who is named. When the three space named, Peter’s name invariably appears first (as in Matthew 17:1, 26:37). It to be his home in Capernaum that Jesus visited when he cured Peter’s mother-in-law (Matthew 8:14), and it to be Peter’s watercraft that Jesus offered when he instructed the group (Luke 5:3). It to be Peter who possessed exceptional insight and also displayed his depth of confidence in the confession of Christ together the kid of God (Matthew 16:15–18; note 8:29; Luke 9:20), and also it to be Peter that rebuked, and in turn was rebuked by, Jesus once the grasp prophesied the he would certainly suffer and also die (Mark 8:32, 33). It was also Peter who shown up the momentary weakness of even the strongest once he denied his lord (Matthew 26:69–75; note 14:66–72; Luke 22:54–61). Later, however, with higher maturity, Peter uncovered strength and, together he to be charged by Jesus (Luke 22:31, 32), effected the strengthening of others. Finally, Peter, who made it through his denial, is allowed to be the an initial of the apostle to see Jesus ~ the Resurrection (Luke 24:34).

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In John’s Gospel the prestige of Peter is challenged in the person of St. John the Apostle, the “Beloved Disciple.” though Peter receives mention in man 37 times (out of a total of 109 times in the four Gospels), one-third of the references are found in the appendix (chapter 21), and also he appears in only nine incidents. The Gospel according to man attempts to present the close relationship in between John and also Jesus while still reserving come Peter the duty of representative and also spokesman. The fact that Peter is emphasized in John and also charged by Jesus come “tend my sheep” and also “feed mine lambs” (John 21:15, 16) at the same time the the duty of the disciples as a entirety is being deemphasized attests to the call of Peter in the apostolic church. However throughout John’s Gospel, Peter share his prominence with john (13:24; 18:15; 19:26, 27, etc.). Among the functions of thing 21 in emphasizing Peter may well be an attempt to gain back the disciple who denied his lord to the place he enjoyed in the Synoptic Gospels.