Historical Background and also Timeline

The Iran Hostage situation was a significant international crisis caused by the seizure that the U.S. Embassy in Tehran and also its employees by revolutionary Iranian students, that then organized the Embassy employees together hostages, in direct violation of international law. The revolutionary federal government of Iran, under the Ayatollah Khomeini, supported the hostage undertaking. The dilemm ended with the relax of the hostages ~ a captivity of 444 days, from November 4, 1979 come January 20, 1981.

Since the release of the hostages, a huge body of literature has actually been written around this event. A timeline of significant events might, however, administer a historical frame for expertise the records in this internet release of newly declassified records.

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January 1978 - February 1979 – The Iranian revolution developed gradually from modest beginnings into a nation-wide activity of protest against the government of the shaman of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (b.1919 - d.1980).16 January 1979 – The shaman of Iran went into exile, never ever to return to Iran.1 February 1979 – The spirituality leader the the Iranian revolutionaries, Ayatollah Khomeini,returned from exile come Iran amid a tumultuous publicly reception.11 February 1979 – The Iranian monarchy was dissolved and also the Ayatollah Khomeini wasgranted can be fried power. This day later came to be a brand-new national holiday in Iran.1 April 1979 – Following massive approval in a national referendum, the Islamic Republic of Iran was proclaimed.22 October 1979 – The ailing shah was admitted for medical treatment in the unified States.19-20 November – The Iranian students released 13 of the hostages, including all of the females and the African-Americans.20 November 1979 – A pressure of several hundred Muslim fundamentalists seized the grand Mosque of Mecca. The pro-American government of Saudi Arabia sent out in special forces to clear the mosque, a armed forces operation the took until December 4th to be completed, leaving thousands of dead.2-3 December 1979 – A referendum in Iran overwhelmingly authorized the new, theocratic constitution because that Iran, which make Khomeini the dictator of Iran.28 January 1980 – 6 of the U.S. Employees at the Embassy, who had actually evaded capture by hiding in the Canadian Embassy, flew out of Tehran making use of fake Canadian passports.24 April 1980 – A surprise U.S. Military expedition to rescue the hostages to be mounted, however it to be aborted as result of equipment fail of three of the eight helicopters. However, one of the retreating helicopters collided through a C-130 transfer plane, death eight U.S. Servicemen.11 July 1980 – release of the American hostage Richard Queen, who was suffering from many sclerosis. This decreased the final number of U.S. Hostages to 52.27 July 1980 – shaman Mohammad Reza Pahlavi died of cancer in Egypt, whereby he had actually flown after being urged to leaving the united States. That was hidden in Cairo.22 September 1980 – Saddam Hussein, the ruler of Iraq, sent his military into Iran, in part to clear up long-standing border disputes with Iran, in part to seize oil-rich lands in southerly Iran, and additionally in component because of fears of the perhaps corrosive effect of Iran’s revolutionary propaganda top top Iraq"s Shiite Muslim majority. Hussein’s military was conveniently halted by the Iranian armed forces. The war was to continue for almost eight years and ended v the deaths of maybe one million people on both sides, when the borders of the two countries remained exactly as before the war.4 November 1980 – U.S. Chairman Jimmy Carter was defeated in the U.S. Presidential Election.19 January 1981 – The Algiers Accords to be signed, constituting the last U.S.-Iran deal to end the hostage crisis.20 January 1981 – The 52 U.S. Hostages to be released minute after Ronald Reagan was sworn in as the 40th U.S. President.

Project Background

The technique of the 35th anniversary of the end of the Iran Hostage situation in January 2016 led the national Declassification facility (NDC) to start reviewing details records collection related come the Crisis and prepare them because that release. A bulk of the documents came indigenous the room of State and documented the work-related done by various Department the State officials and working teams in trying to bring about a diplomatic end to the crisis. The NDC was especially interested in documents which had not to be released prior to by the national buzzpatterson.com and Records management (NARA) and also which would hence be likely to provide additional information on the Crisis. The NDC was additionally interested in working through other divisions of NARA the would be able to provide extr records chronicling the Hostage Crisis.

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Working in tandem through the NDC, staff at the Jimmy Carter Presidential Library and also Museum were able come release additional records concerned the Hostage dilemm that had actually not been previously available. These records were then consisted of as part of this special task for a total of roughly 7200 pages of freshly declassified documents from number of series.