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You are watching: How did thurgood marshall help the civil rights movement

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Portrait of Thurgood Marshall. Reproduction courtesy of the can be fried Court historic Society.
Thurgood Marshall
b. July 2, 1908, Baltimore, MDd. January 24, 1993, Washington, D.C.Associate righteousness of the can be fried Court(1967-1991)
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Thurgood Marshall, the very first African American ever to serve on the Court, was the younger of 2 sons the a rail porter that later functioned on the staff of a whites-only nation club. His mother was a college teacher. Marshall i graduated from Lincoln college in 1930 and also applied to university of Maryland law School but was turned down because of his race. He then attended Howard University law School, though his mother had to pawn she wedding and engagement rings to pay the tuition. That graduated first in his course in 1933, just as America was emotion the full influence of the good Depression. As shortly as he graduated, Marshall opened up a legislation office in Baltimore, and the following year he stood for the neighborhood chapter the the nationwide Association because that the advance of Colored people (NAACP) in a suit challenging the college of Maryland law School"s plan of segregation. He winner the case, and also Marshall was lugged onto the nationwide staff of the NAACP in 1936, ending up being the organization"s cook legal counsel in 1940. He continued to be with the NAACP for a complete of 25 years and also served as its an essential strategist in the legal effort to finish racial segregation throughout American society. In a collection of federal court cases, Marshall and his mentor, Charles Hamilton Houston, set out to turning back segregation sanctioned by the can be fried Court"s decision in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896). Because that decision had called for "separate but equal" establishments for blacks and also whites, the NAACP suggested that organizations for african Americans were not equal come the parallel establishments for whites. A series of decisions rule in favor of the NAACP, and, start in 1945, Marshall began an overwhelming the Plessy doctrine itself. This ultimately led come the landmark instance of Brown v. Plank of Education, which Marshall successfully said before the supreme Court in 1952 and also again in 1953. The result Court decision i rejected the Plessy doctrine of "separate yet equal," agreeing the students" self-esteem was harmed through the mere reality of segregation. While the decision applied only to distinction in public education, it set the phase for the civil legal rights movement. Marshall prevailed in 29 of the 32 situations he said before the can be fried Court.President john F. Kennedy nominated Marshall to the U.S. Court the Appeals for the second Circuit in 1961. President lyndon Baines Johnson appointed him solicitor basic in 1965 (the an initial African-American to hold this position). In 1967 chairman Johnson produced an opening on the can be fried Court by picking for his attorney basic Ramsey Clark, the boy of associate Justice Tom Clark. Righteousness Clark resigned from the Court come avoid conflicts of interest, and also the chairman appointed Marshall to fill his seat. Marshall is stated to have remarked, "I have a life time appointment and also I intended to offer it. I mean to dice at 110, shot by a jealous husband." At heart a brand-new Deal liberal, Marshall prove an unwavering commitment to universal civil rights and also civil liberties. He to be a staunch opponent of the death penalty and a specialized civil libertarian. No justice was more consistent in opposing government regulation of speech or personal sexual conduct. As the Court became an ext conservative in his last years and he discovered himself in the liberal minority, the wrote, "Power, not reason, is the new currency that this Court"s decision making." He retirement in 1991.
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AUTHOR"S BIO
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John Fox, a writer and documentary movie producer, was series producer that the Emmy-winning PBS series HERITAGE: CIVILIZATION and also THE JEWS. Editor-in-chief the the award-winning legacy DVD-ROM, he managed the production of that 540-map interaction atlas of human being history. He is right now writing a book around the expansion of communal knowledge over the centuries.
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