Female-to-male surgical treatment is a kind of sex reassignment surgery, i m sorry is likewise called gender affirmation surgical treatment or gender-affirming surgery.

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This can take different forms, including the removed of breasts — a mastectomy — and also the altering of the genital region, known as “bottom” surgery.

Examples that bottom surgery include:

removal of the vagina, recognized as a vaginectomyconstruction of a penis through metoidioplasty or phalloplasty

In this article, we explain female-to-male gender-affirming surgeries. We additionally discuss recovery and what to suppose from a transgender penis.


Before having actually female-to-male gender-affirming surgery, a human being will get testosterone instead of therapy.

They might then experience one or much more of the following varieties of procedure.

Chest restructuring

A human undergoing surgical procedure to shift from female to male generally has a subcutaneous mastectomy to remove breast tissue. The operated doctor will also make alterations come the appearance and position that the nipples.

Meanwhile, testosterone treatment will wake up the expansion of chest hair.

Removal the the uterus, ovaries, and also fallopian tubes

A person may wish to undergo this type of surgical treatment if they are uncomfortable having actually a uterus, ovaries, or fallopian tubes, or if hormone treatment does not protect against menstruation.

In a partial hysterectomy, a surgeon will certainly remove only the uterus.

In a total hysterectomy, they will also remove the cervix.

A bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, or BSO, entails the removal of the right and left fallopian tubes and ovaries.

Metoidioplasty

A metoidioplasty is a method of constructing a brand-new penis, or neopenis.

It involves changing the clitoris right into a penis. A human will receive hormone therapy before the surgical procedure to enlarge the clitoris because that this purpose.

During the procedure, the surgeon likewise removes the vagina, in a vaginectomy.

In addition, lock lengthen the urethra and also position it v the neopenis. To accomplish the lengthening, the surgeon uses tissues native the cheek, labia minora, or various other parts the the vagina. The aim of this is to permit the human being to urinate while standing.

Another alternative is a Centurion procedure, which requires repositioning round ligaments under the clitoris to increase the girth that the penis.

A metoidioplasty commonly takes 2–5 hours. After the initial surgery, added procedures might be necessary.

A Centurion procedure takes about 2.5 hours, and also removing the mrs reproductive offal will add to this time.

An advantage of a metoidioplasty is that the neopenis may become erect, because of the erectile ability of clitoral tissue.

However, a neopenis resulting from a metoidioplasty is frequently too little for penetrative sex.

Phalloplasty

A phalloplasty offers grafted skin — normally from the arm, thigh, back, or abdomen — to kind a neopenis. Doctors think about taking skin from the forearm to it is in the finest option in penile construction.

Compared with a metoidioplasty, a phalloplasty outcomes in a bigger penis. However, this neopenis cannot end up being erect top top its own.

After a duration of recovery, a person can have a penile implant. This can enable them to get and maintain erections and have penetrative sex.

During a phalloplasty, the operated doctor performs a vaginectomy and also lengthens the urethra to permit for urination through the penis.

Disadvantages that a phalloplasty incorporate the variety of surgical visits and revisions that might be necessary, as well as the cost, i m sorry is typically greater than that of a metoidioplasty.

Scrotoplasty

A human may decision to have actually a scrotoplasty — the production of a scrotum — together a metoidioplasty or phalloplasty.

In a scrotoplasty, a surgeon hollows out and repositions the labia majora to type a scrotum and also inserts silicone testicular implants.


The recovery time from female-to-male surgical treatment varies, depending on the form of procedure and also factors such as the person’s as whole health and lifestyle choices.

For example, smoking slows under recovery and also increases the risk of complications complying with surgery. If a human smokes, vapes, or uses any substance with nicotine, a medical team may consider them less eligible because that this kind of surgery.

Following gender-affirming surgery, most world need to continue to be in the hospital for at least a couple of days.

After leaving the hospital, the human being needs come rest and only interact in very restricted activities for about 6 mainly or longer.

Also, when a human being has had actually a urethral extension, they should use a catheter because that 3–4 weeks.

Some complications of a metoidioplasty or phalloplasty include:

urethral fistula — a tunneled link that forms in between the urethra and another part of the bodyurethral stricture — a narrowing that reasons a blockage the urine flow within the urethra

A human who has had a phalloplasty may experience:

scarring in the area whereby the graft was takenskin graft failure or tissue death

Risks of a scrotoplasty include rejection the the testicular implants.

All gender-affirming surgeries lug a threat of:

infectionbleedingreactions to anesthesiadissatisfaction through the results

A human who undergoes a metoidioplasty may have erections and also enjoy more sensation in their neopenis. However, the penis will be reasonably small in size.

A neopenis that results from a phalloplasty is normally larger, though it might be less sensitive. To have actually erections, a human being will require a penile implant.

If a person has actually urethral extension, the goal is to be able to urinate while standing after a complete recovery native the procedure. Some researches report a high variety of urological complications following phalloplasties. It is important to attend regular follow-ups v a urologist.

A 2005 study of 55 world who underwent gender-affirming surgical treatment — consisting of 23 female-to-male participants — notes that 80% of every participants reported “improvement of their sexuality” adhering to surgery.

Transgender males tended come report much more frequent masturbation, sex-related satisfaction, and also sexual excitement 보다 transgender women. They also reported getting to orgasms much more easily than they had before surgery and a tendency toward “more powerful and shorter” orgasms.

Transgender men with penile implants because that erections skilled pain more frequently throughout sex 보다 those without implants. However, they likewise reported that their sex-related expectations were more completely realized, contrasted with participants who had actually not got implants.

A 2018 study found that 94–100% of participants who had undergone gender-affirming surgical treatment reported satisfaction with the operation results, v the variance depending on the kind of procedure.

The 6% of world who reported dissatisfaction or remorse did so as a result of preoperative mental symptoms or complications complying with the procedures.


The outlook for female-to-male surgery depends on the type of surgery, the person’s health, and also other factors. Most civilization report satisfaction complying with the procedure.

However, the complication rate is fairly high, especially in relation to urinary health.

Therefore, that is important to work very closely with a qualified plastic surgeon, urologist, gynecologist, and mental health expert to ensure the finest outcome.

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It is additionally essential to follow recovery guidelines and also attend all follow-up appointments.