The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a rat lungworm, a zoonotic microorganism which reasons a global, emerging infectious condition known as rat lungworm an illness (RLWD). This nematode was very first discovered in China in 1935 <1>, however is now endemic in Asia, Australia, the Caribbean islands and also Pacific islands; the has additionally spread come the American continent with much more than 2,800 instances of person infection reported in 30 countries <2, 3>. Rats are the critical host, generally Rattus rattus and R. Norvegicus <4>. As soon as rats eat infected slugs or snails, they ingest 3rd stage (L3) larvae which ultimately grow to sex-related maturity and also reproduce in the love <5>. Single-celled eggs hatch in the lung, and an initial stage larvae migrate up the bronchial tree, room swallowed, and 6-8 weeks after infection are excreted v feces <6>. Slugs or snails climate eat rat feces and acquire the very first stage larvae. Slugs and also snails room obligatory intermediate master which support parasite advancement from the first to the L3 larval stage.
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Humans can end up being infected by ingesting intermediary or paratenic (passive carrier) master containing infective L3 larvae. The most essential paratenic hosts space crustaceans (such together prawns and also land crabs) and predacious land planarians, such together flatworms in the genus Platydemus <7>. As soon as ingested through humans, larvae permeate the minister mucosa and travel v the liver and lungs come the central nervous device (CNS) <2>. RLWD deserve to be a significant threat to human being health. Angiostrongyliasis in human beings can result in transient meningitis (inflammation of the meninges the the mind and the spinal cord) or a an ext serious disease involving the brain, spinal cord and also nerve roots, v a characteristic eosinophilia that the peripheral blood and also cerebrospinal fluid <8>. Humans are a “dead-end” host, meaning the parasites perform not give birth in humans but remain in the CNS or deserve to move come the eye chamber leading to ocular angiostrongyliasis, whereby they stay until parasite death <3>.
A. Cantonensis has actually been recorded as a parasitic disease of people in Hawaiʻi and other Pacific islands since the at an early stage 1960’s <9>. The flatworm Platydemus manokwari and also the semi-slug Parmarion martensi (hereafter described as semi-slug) had recently immigrant to Japan and were assumed to be the probable cause of break out of angiostrongyliasis over there in the year 2000 <10>. The semi-slug is likewise a recent immigrant to the Hawaiian islands <11> and also is believed to be responsible because that a current outbreak of angiostrongyliasis situations on the Island of Hawaii <12>.
In the district wherein the an illness outbreak occurred (Puna district of the Island of Hawaii), >75% of P. Martensi were discovered to it is in infected with A. Cantonensis. In specific areas, semi-slugs were an extremely numerous and some were heavily infected through L3 A. Cantonensis larvae <12>.
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ReferencesChen HT. Un nouveau nematode pulmonaire, pulmonema cantonensis, NGN sp. Des rats de Canton. Ann Parasit Hum Comp 1935;13:312.Wang QP, Lai DH, Zhu XU, Chen X-G, Lun ZR. Person angiostrongyliasis. Lancet epidemic Dis 2008;8:621-630.Wang QP, Wu ZD, Wei RL, Owen ZR, Lun ZR. Human being Angiostrongylus cantononsis: one update. Eur J Clin Microbiol infect Dis 2011;DOI 10.1007/s10096-0111328-5.Martin-Alonso A, Foronda P, Quispe-Ricalde MA, Feliu C, Valladares B. Seroprevalence the Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Wild Rodents native the Canary Islands. PLoS ONE 2011;6(11): e27747. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027747Alicata JE, Jindrak K. Angiostrongylosis in the Pacific and Southeast Asia. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois. 1970.Wu GH. Angiostrongylus cantonensis. In: flavor JQ ed Nature-borne conditions Science press Beijing ns 1182. 2006.Hollingsworth RG, Cowie RH. Apple snails as condition vectors, pp. 121-132. In R. C. Joshi & L. S. Sebastian, Eds. Global Advances in Ecology and also Management of golden Apple Snails. Nueva Ecija: Philippine Rice research Institute. 2006.Kliks MM, Palumbo NE. Eosinophilic meningitis beyond the Pacific basin: the an international dispersal that a peridomestic zoonosis brought about by Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the nematode lungworm that rats. Soc Sci and Med 1992;34:199-212.Wallace GD, Rosen L. Researches on eosinophilic meningitis V. Molluscan master of Angiostrongylus cantonensis ~ above Pacific Islands. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1969;18:206-216.Asato R, Taira K, Nakamura M, Kudaka J, Itokazu K, Kawanaka M. An altering epidemiology of angiostrongyliasis cantonensis in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Jpn J infect Dis 2004; 57:184-186.Cowie RH. Catalog and bibliography the the nonindigenous nonmarine snails and slugs the the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional files 1997;50:1-66.Hollingsworth RG, Kaneta RK, Sullivan JJ, Bishop HS, Qvarnstrom Y, da Silva AJ, Robinson DG. Distribution of Parmarion cf. martensi (Pulmonata: Helicarionidae), a new semi-slug insect on Hawaii Island, and its potential as a vector for person angiostrongyliasis. Pacific Sci 2007;61:457-468.