Definition

Hyperthyroidism is a condition in i m sorry the thyroid gland provides too much thyroid hormone. The condition is often referred to as overactive thyroid.

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Alternative Names

Thyrotoxicosis; Overactive thyroid; Graves condition - hyperthyroidism; Thyroiditis - hyperthyroidism; toxicity goiter - hyperthyroidism; Thyroid nodules - hyperthyroidism; Thyroid hormone - hyperthyroidism

Causes

The thyroid gland is an important organ that the endocrine system. The is located at the prior of the neck just over where her collarbones meet. The gland makes the hormone that manage the method every cabinet in the body supplies energy. This procedure is dubbed metabolism.

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Many diseases and conditions can cause hyperthyroidism, including:

Graves condition (most common cause of hyperthyroidism)Inflammation (thyroiditis) that the thyroid because of viral infections, some medicines, or after pregnant (common)Taking too lot thyroid hormone (common)Noncancerous growths of the thyroid gland or pituitary gland (rare)Some tumors of the testes or ovaries (rare)Getting clinical imaging test with comparison dye that has iodine (rare, and only if over there is a problem with the thyroid)Eating too lot of foodstuffs that save iodine (very rare, and only if over there is a trouble with the thyroid)

Symptoms

Common symptoms include:

AnxietyDifficulty concentratingFatigueFrequent bowel movementsGoiter (visibly enlarged thyroid gland) or thyroid nodulesHair lossHand tremorHeat intoleranceIncreased appetiteIncreased sweatingIrregular menstrual periods in womenNail transforms (thickness or flaking)NervousnessPounding or racing heart beat (palpitations)RestlessnessSleep problemsWeight lose (or load gain, in part cases)
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Other symptoms the can take place with this disease:

Breast breakthrough in menClammy skinDiarrheaFeeling faint as soon as you raise your handsHigh blood pressureItchy or irritated eyesItchy skinNausea and vomitingProtruding eye (exophthalmos)Skin blushing or flushingSkin rashes on the shinsWeakness of the hips and also shoulders
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Exams and also Tests

The health care provider will perform a physical exam. The exam may discover the following:

High systolic blood pressure (the very first number in a blood press reading)Increased heart rateEnlarged thyroid glandShaking of the handsSwelling or inflammation roughly the eyesVery strong reflexesSkin, hair, and also nail changes

Blood test are likewise ordered come measure her thyroid hormone TSH, T3, and also T4.

You may likewise have blood tests come check:

Cholesterol levelsGlucoseSpecialized thyroid tests favor Thyroid receptor antibody (TRAb) or Thyroid Stimulating Immunoglobulin (TSI)

Imaging tests of the thyroid may likewise be needed, including:

Radioactive iodine uptake and scanThyroid ultrasound (rarely)

Treatment

Treatment counts on the cause and severity of symptoms. Hyperthyroidism is commonly treated through one or an ext of the following:

Antithyroid drugs (propylthiouracil or methimazole) which minimize or block the results of the extra thyroid hormone Radioactive iodine to destroy the thyroid gland and also stop the excess production of hormonesSurgery to eliminate the thyroid

If your thyroid is removed with surgery or damaged with radioactive iodine, you need to take thyroid hormone replacement pills for the remainder of her life.

Medicines referred to as beta-blockers may be prescribed come treat symptoms together as rapid heart rate, tremor, sweating, and also anxiety till the hyperthyroidism have the right to be controlled.

Outlook (Prognosis)

Hyperthyroidism is treatable. Some reasons may go away there is no treatment.

Hyperthyroidism resulted in by Graves an illness usually it s okay worse end time. It has many complications, few of which are significant and affect quality the life.

Possible Complications

Thyroid dilemm (storm) is a suddenly worsening that hyperthyroidism symptoms that may occur with epidemic or stress. Fever, diminished alertness, and ab pain might occur. People need come be cure in the hospital.

Other symptom of hyperthyroidism include:

Heart difficulties such as fast heart rate, abnormal love rhythm, and heart failureOsteoporosis Eye disease (double vision, ulcers the the cornea, vision loss)

Surgery-related complications, including:

Scarring of the neckHoarseness due to nerve damages to the voice boxLow calcium level early to damage to the parathyroid glands (located near the thyroid gland)Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)

Tobacco use may make part complications of hyperthyroidism worse.

When to contact a clinical Professional

Call her provider if you have symptoms that hyperthyroidism. Go to one emergency room or call 911 or the local emergency number if you have:

Change in consciousnessDizzinessRapid, irregular heartbeat

Call her provider if you room being treated because that hyperthyroidism and you build symptoms of underactive thyroid, including:

DepressionMental and physical sluggishnessWeight get

References

Hollenberg A, Wiersinga WM. Hyperthyroid disorders. In: Melmed S, Auchus, RJ, Goldfine AB, Koenig RJ, Rosen CJ , eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 14th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 12.

Ross DS, Burch HB, Cooper DS, et al. 2016 American Thyroid combination guidelines because that diagnosis and also management that hyperthyroidism and also other reasons of thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid. 2016;26(10):1343-1421. PMID: 27521067 pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27521067/.

Wang TS, Sosa JA. Monitoring of hyperthyroidism. In: Cameron AM, Cameron JL, eds. Existing Surgical Therapy. 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:767-774. 

Weiss RE, Refetoff S. Thyroid role testing. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 78.

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