Cocaine is a extremely addictive stimulant medicine that is frequently found in the form of a white powder. World use that by snorting it, rubbing the on the gums, injecting it, or cigarette smoking a rock kind of it well-known as cracked cocaine.1,2

Unfortunately, cocaine’s addictive features can cause people to usage it repeatedly, which, end time, can reason changes in the mind that may impact how that functions.1

What Is Cocaine?

Cocaine originates from the coca plant, i beg your pardon is mostly grown in Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru. The drug is produced in these nations in clandestine laboratories with a number of different chemicals.

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Once processed, that is trafficked through south and main America to Mexico to it is in smuggled right into the unified States, or shipped to industries in other parts that the world. The Colombian cartels were historically the biggest players in the cocaine trade. However Mexico has actually seized a bigger foothold in current years.

On the street, cocaine might be referred to as coke, blow, snow, or powder.1,2

Effects of Cocaine

The short- and long-term results of cocaine use can vary depending on the person. And can include:1,2

Euphoria.Increased alertness.Rapid heartbeat.Raised human body temperature.Talkativeness.Restlessness.Irritability.Pupil dilation.Decreased appetite.

Where walk Cocaine Come From?

Cocaine is extracted and processed native coca tree in south America top top the ridge of the Andes hills or in lowland jungles such together those found in Colombia.1, 2, 4 The vast majority of cocaine production occurs in Colombia, Peru, and Bolivia, as those countries are the main locations where the coca plant deserve to be grown naturally and in adequate quantities to develop mass quantities of cocaine.3, 4, 5, 6

In 2008, Colombia and also Peru produced about 450 metric tons of pure cocaine each. Bolivia created 113 metric loads of pure cocaine.4 an ext recent estimates from 2014 display that Colombia is growing much more coca plants than Peru and also Bolivia combined.

Since Colombian coca plants administer less cocaine than Peruvian or Bolivian plants, Colombian cocaine manufacturing units may need to harvest significantly an ext coca plants just to produce similar amounts of cocaine.4, 5 Chile is likewise becoming known for make cocaine.6

Coca plants space grown, refined, and also processed in regional areas, frequently in protected sites together as indigenous reserves, national parks, and areas follow me the border, which are off-limits to aerial spraying efforts to kill the crops.4, 5

What is Cocaine do Of?

Cocaine, together the human being knows it, is actually cocaine hydrochloride. It is 1 the 14 alkaloids that naturally occur in the coca plant. Out of over 200 tree species, over there are just 2 species of coca leaf that contain sufficient cocaine alkaloid for cocaine production. Generally, coca leaves deserve to be harvest 3-6 times a year. Yet in part areas, the coca leaf deserve to be harvested approximately 8 time a year, depending upon where the tree grows and the specific species.4

How Is Cocaine Produced?

How is cocaine made? Various methods are provided to do cocaine.


In one method, dried coca leaves space soaked v lime water or other alkaline liquids and also then extracted with kerosene in metal drums.2, 5, 6 Workers usage sulfuric mountain to extract the liquified cocaine and form a liquid systems to i beg your pardon lime is added, leading to precipitation the coca paste.2

Workers then add acid and also potassium to eliminate impurities, adhered to by a bicarbonate, to cause the base to separate.2,6 The basic is further dissolved in a solvent prefer acetone and then soaked again in acid. Finally, the cocaine paste is filtered with a towel to separate, then dried.2,3,4,6

Alternately, the base can be liquified in a solvent, such as acetone, ether, or ethyl acetate, and also heated in a bath of warm water. Methyl ethyl ketone is another solvent that workers add to the warm liquid mixture, together with hydrochloric acid, bring about cocaine hydrochloride crystallizing in the solution. Solvents room pressed out by hand, adhered to by a hydraulic press, then the mixture is boil in a microwave to produce cocaine powder.6

It takes about 450-600 kilograms of new Colombian coca pipeline to create 1 kilogram the cocaine base. The cocaine base can then be converted right into a kilogram of cocaine hydrochloride or powdered cocaine. However, this amount differs from other varieties of coca leaves, since one species has greater levels that cocaine alkaloid and also requires fewer leaves to produce cocaine base.3

Crack Cocaine Process

Powdered cocaine have the right to be more processed into crack by first mixing it right into a solution of either ammonia or a mix of baking soda and also water, climate heating the mixture to produce a substance that creates rocks because that smoking.1, 2, 6 Alternately, an alkali substance deserve to be mixed into a heated liquid cocaine equipment that then settles come the bottom of as a solid. Part adulterants, or cut agents, can be filtered out with the development of crack cocaine.2

How Is Cocaine Distributed?

Once cocaine is processed, distribution occurs. Circulation is a complex chain that typically involves plenty of different groups.

First, the growers that coca plants offer the leaves or coca paste to laboratories for processing. Farmers or cartels own the labs, and also the cocaine basic or cocaine hydrochloride then alters hands right into local cocaine trafficking agents. They smuggle and sell the cocaine come a bigger organization that have the right to arrange for one more organization to delivery it into other countries.7

It is estimated that about 90% that U.S. Cocaine comes through the U.S.-Mexico border, greatly through Texas.

Distributors circulate cocaine through southern and central America, whereby they climate smuggle it to Mexico, or less generally through the Caribbean. The bulk ends up in the united States, though some of it is sent to Europe, Australia, Africa, or Asia.3, 7

The medicine is regularly transported native Colombia to Mexico or main America by sea, and also then right into the United says via land borders. That is estimated that about 90% the U.S. Cocaine comes v the U.S.-Mexico border, largely through Texas. A smaller amount comes with California and Arizona.7

Once the cocaine is in the joined States, distributors market it to wholesale dealers. These dealers market it to mid-level medicine dealers, who in turn sell it to low-level street dealers, from whom consumers can purchase quantities of the drug.7 Street dealers regularly employ a number of individuals come play roles such as holders, transporters (also called mules), shipment people, counters that money or just arrive drugs, world to save a watch, back-up personnel, and enforcers of blame payments.8

What Is Cocaine reduced With?

Along the it is provided chain, cocaine is cut with adulterants to minimize its purity and also create a bigger profit margin.1, 3 common cutting agents include amphetamines, baking sugars, caffeine, paracetamol (Tylenol), cornstarch, flour, talcum powder, and anesthetics, consisting of procaine.1, 2, 4

Who Controls the Cocaine Trade?

The significant countries in the cocaine trade include those whereby coca plants room grown and also processed, such together Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru. Nations that deliver cocaine across national lines, such as Mexico or Caribbean countries including Haiti, the Bahamas, and also the Dominican Republic, space also large players.3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9

Colombian smuggling groups, the Revolutionary armed Forces that Colombia (FARC) and ELN (National Liberation Army) guerilla groups, equipped revolutionary gangs, and rural bands that guerillas acquisition coca leaves or coca dough from local farmers, procedure the product, and also negotiate transportation right into other countries.5, 7

Mexican medicine cartels, such together the Guadalajara Cartel, frequently transport cocaine from southern America right into the joined States and also other countries and also are distributors fairly than suppliers.3, 4


Mexican cartels previously operated together junior partners because that the Colombian cartels. Yet crackdowns top top the Caribbean route and also on Colombian cartels led to Mexican cartels play a larger duty in smuggling cocaine to north America. They started to collect much more of the earnings from the cocaine trade.3

Mexican cartels additionally operate labs in main and southern America to process coca leaves into cocaine. Castle have expanded their cocaine circulation efforts to Africa, Asia, Australia, and Europe.3

Cocaine use in the United claims declined considerably from 10.5 million civilization in 1982 to 5.3 million civilization in 2008.7 However, an ext recent estimates present the United claims as the main consumer, adhered to by Brazil, Australia, and also Europe.9 various other areas, consisting of Africa and also Asia, are likewise consuming an ext cocaine.4, 7, 9

In 2012, the cocaine market global was valued at around $70 exchange rate annually.4

Need help With Cocaine Addiction?

If friend or a loved one space struggling with a cocaine usage disorder, getting aid is critical start to her journey. There are many treatment options that may be effective for people struggling v cocaine misuse, including:

Inpatient therapy programs are those in i m sorry a human being lives in the treatment facility to get 24/7 care and support for your substance usage disorder. This may include various types of individual and group therapy, detox, treatment for co-occurring mental health and wellness conditions, amenities, and also aftercare programs. Depending upon the level of treatment determined by a clinician, a human may additionally need medically regulated inpatient services, which sell 24-hour nursing care and physician treatment for the most acute instances of cocaine addiction and also occurring medical or mental wellness conditions.10

Outpatient therapy programs can include countless of the exact same therapeutic offerings and also services as inpatient treatment however do no require world to stay in the facility. This enables people to continue working and/or going to institution while they proactively pursue

12-step programs show off attending support teams that carry out peer support to human being as they recoup from substance use disorders and other compulsive behaviors. Lock can assist people attend to behavioral struggles and also common triggers associated with your addiction if gaining valuable tools to take it on your journey.

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If friend or a love one are prepared to get help for cocaine addiction, American addiction Centers is right here to help. Ours compassionate navigators recognize the struggles associated with substance use disorders and also can help you recognize treatment options to make sure you select the treatment type that meets her needs. Call us now at 1-888-319-2606Helpline details to acquire started top top the road to